Pocono Township was created as a separate Township by a decree of the courts of Northampton County in November 1816. It is bounded on the north by Tunkhannock and Tobyhanna Townships, east by Coolbaugh and Paradise Townships and the west by Jackson Township. It took its name from the mountains which extend across it. Pocono Township comprises 35 square miles.
In 1830 the population 564; in 1840 the population was 973; in 1980 the population was 5,772. In 1990 the population was 7,550; in 2000 the population was approximately 9,606; and in 2009 the population is estimated to be well over 10,000.
The village of Tannersville, where the local government buildings are located, was settled in approximately 1750 by John Larner, formerly of Philadelphia. Tannersville, according to one historian, was first called Pocono Point. Many Indian trails were later widened for stagecoach use, and later evolved into highways. Two of the most famous of these are the Lackawanna Trail (now Route 611 through Tannersville) and Sullivans Trail. Learneds Tavern (burned to the ground in 2000 now present day – CVS Pharmacy) was established along Lackawanna Trail, and in 1779, was the last building on the frontier. On June 18, 1779, General Sullivan and his soldiers camped at the Learns or Learneds Tavern. The monument recognizing the site of Learneds Tavern can be seen adjunct to the parking lot of CVS Pharmacy.